The increased selectivity of RTD-1 for anionic DPPG over zwitterionic DPPC was shown by differential scanning calorimetry. RTD-1, at a molar peptide-lipid ratio of 1:100, induced considerable changes in the phase behaviour of DPPG, but not of DPPC. The main transition temperature, Tm, was unchanged, but additional phase transitions appeared above Tm. oRTD-1 induced similar effects. However, the effects were not observable below a peptide:lipid molar ratio of 1:50, which correlates with the weaker biological activity of oRTD-1. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering revealed for DPPG the appearance of additional structural features induced by RTD-1 above Tm, which were interpreted as correlated lamellar structures, with increased order of the fatty acyl side chains of the lipid. It is proposed that after initial electrostatic interaction of the cationic rim of the peptide with the anionic DPPG headgroups, leading to stabilized lipid-peptide clusters, the hydrophobic face of the peptide assists in its interaction with the fatty acyl side chains eventually leading to membrane disruption.